Specialized Teaching and Training Oncology
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC DATA:
The Iraqi Commission for Medical Specialties which works under the
auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
identified the need to provide new facilities to tackle the problem
of spreading cases of malignant diseases and tumours in Iraq. These
new facilities are to be housed under the same roof, i.e. centre
building. Due of the fast increasing of cancer occurred in Iraq
during the last years the development of new state of the art cancer
diagnostics and treatment is essential.
The new ONCOLOGY TEACHING
CENTRE (OTC) is a new developed specific clinic on the site in
The Main assignment of this new
centre are the:
Diagnostic of cancer
Treatment of cancer and
evaluation of new treatments
Education of doctors and
Education centre of nursing
Palliative care and pain
treatment for cancer patient
Relative care and advice
Consulting of cancer patient
(diet plan, complementary medicine etc.)
Screening and documentation
Maintain the cancer data base
Development of cancer future
Research and scientific
Development of new treatment
Documentation of pathologic
Maintain and operate mobile CT
trucks for screening and Scientific
interaction and knowledge transfer
THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PHILOSOPHY AND
The important lesson that any doctor had learned since medicine was
established by Hippocrates is that, medicine is a profession of
"care and diagnosis". Healing or being good still stays within the
specialty of the Great Creator.
In this project this meaning had been depicted and materialized,
- An open hand palm resembles will-giving,
care, help and praying to God to give heal.
- An eye as a symbol for diagnosis where sight
is the most important sense that a doctor uses to diagnose even
though utilization of the most advanced technology.
It is for the beneficiary of the human being or
patient who is by cancer to have diagnosis,care and praying for
They are three words and phrases that the whole concept of the
project was established on to achieve the link and relationship
between meaning and concept in one hand, and reality and building on
So the architectural design was crystallized in on big mass (The
Hand) and tower block of six stories which encompasses the eye.
The philosophy of the architectural stems from the possibility of
combining the nature of the project and building's shape /form. The
nature of the project is crystallized in the provision of medical
care in this case cancer and tumours diagnosis of the diseases.
These two aspects care and diagnosis comprise the crux of medicine
in its actual objectives from early days till now and future.
Healing, may one argue is a main objective too, but unluckily in
these types of diseases is far fetched. This is a submission to
enhance the relationship between the nature of the project and its
building shape form from the architectural design philosophy,
ideology and concepts point of view. If this argument is pushed in a
creative strand one can argue that since the human being hand or
palm ( doctor's hand) when it is stretched represents the good will
of giving care; i.e. ; medical care. This is the hand
tool/power/fist/ muscle of medicine. In relevance to diagnosis, the
human eye (Doctor's eye) proved to be a unique and possibly the only
trustworthy tool of diagnosis. This eye sees in order to diagnose.
It sees images, scanning, x-ray slides…etc of human body; organs;
tissues, cells to diagnose tumour or cancer diseases.
So, the architectural design philosophy, ideology and concepts is
composed of a human-being hand (The care giving willingly) and a
human-being eye (The unique diagnosis tool).
Healing, though far fetched in many types of this health
malfunction, is left to nature to play its role but the human –being
hand being upward is actually asking GOD for heal too. This is the
case in cancer medicine. The architect does resemble the case
intentionally in the design of this oncology teaching centre.
Construction and Structural Engineering:
Any of the followed standards shall be adopted:-
- American codes of practice.
- German codes of practice.
- European codes of practice.
Special Design Limitations
Flooring should be smooth, hard, easily cleaned and appropriately
There should be coving between the floor and the wall to prevent
accumulation of dust and dirt in corners and crevices.
Avoid wood, tiles and unsealed joints as they may produce a
reservoir for infectious agents.
Structural Provisions and Design Considerations
The x-ray, accelerator and cyclotron procedure rooms, which are
usually called as “the controlled areas", shall be fully protected
against radiation ionization.
The choice of the construction materials for floors ceilings and
walls shall be made in accordance with common radiation protection
Super-Structure Design Philosophy:
The structural systems assumed here shall produce an open flexible
floor plates for better occupation.
Preliminary findings favouring the cast-in-situ concrete system,
with a module.
Specialized structural systems will be designed for unique
conditions in the entrance lobby, the circular core and the
skylights between wings.
In some zones, very heavy reinforced concrete walls, ceilings and
floors shall be constructed for safety provisions. Very dense
concrete coated and covered with barium and /or lead, shall be
adapted for these parts of the building.
Foundation Design Philosophy
The high rise parts of the building shall have a piled foundation
The basement shall be designed and constructed as a water tight box.
Low rise parts of the building shall have simpler foundation.
Construction of Walls and Radiation Protection
There are two types of wall construction in radiation rooms:-
- The first type is the solid construction.
- The second type is the hollow-core
The latter provide flexibility in the use of rooms
and enables services to be installed within them.
Both types of walls must provide radiation protection according to
the standards, in order to insure that adjacent spaces are protected
from ionizing radiation.
Construction of Floors and Ceilings
The majority of the general x-ray diagnostic rooms contain ceiling
–mounted x-ray tubes. In order to support the overhead equipment and
services, it is recommended that a load-bearing modular steel grid
should be hung from the structural floor slab of the story above.
This will provide built-in flexibility for the choice and location
of equipment, both initially and in the subsequent life of the
For this building, which shall be of public use and which must have
a longer time life, the following materials were thought to be
- For all columns and R.C. walls, and floors
and ceilings surrounding radiation zones high strength, good
quality concrete having a cube crushing strength of at least 40
N/mm2, is recommended. While for all other members of the
skeleton, ordinary quality concrete having a cube crushing
strength of at least 25 N/mm2 is recommended.
- Wherever required, special cement and
additives shall be implemented during construction to achieve
better quality concrete and finishes.
- Special paints (like barium) and metal
covering (like lead) shall be provided and used according to
standard procedure in addition to R.C. layers in order to
facilitate safety for people working in radiation areas.
For such type of construction and for the case of better
hydro-insulation and low cost and easy maintenance, we suggest the
traditional type of roofing which is applied very widely in Iraq.
This type of roofing consists of the following layers starting from
bottom to top:-
Thin layer of sand (10-20 mm).
Heat and sound insulation.
Layer of clean sand or earth.
Concrete slabs, jointed by good quality
Many types of partitions were suggested to be employed in this
building, these types are:-
Hollow concrete blocks.
Lime stone bricks.
When choosing partitions' material, the following
shall be kept in mind: